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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:zgdlgc.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我应该使用(yong)卧式(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心吗(ma)?——加工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)件特征

加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)类(lei)型的(de)(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)定需要考(kao)虑(lv)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)对象、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)范围和(he)设备价(jia)格等因(yin)(yin)素,根据所选(xuan)(xuan)零(ling)(ling)件(jian)族(zu) (组)进行。如果(guo)您(nin)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)具有以下特征,则(ze)应选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin):加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)两面以上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)零(ling)(ling)件(jian)或(huo)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)在四周呈径(jing)向(xiang)(xiang)辐(fu)射状排列(lie)的(de)(de)(de)孔(kong)系、面,如箱体(ti)类(lei)、壳体(ti)类(lei)零(ling)(ling)件(jian)等,应选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin);被加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)位置精度要求较高(gao),宜选(xuan)(xuan)用高(gao)精密卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin);零(ling)(ling)件(jian)在一(yi)次装夹中(zhong)需要完成多面加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时,可选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)立(li)卧复合式(shi)五面加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)。当然,上(shang)述各点也不是绝(jue)对的(de)(de)(de),一(yi)方(fang)(fang)(fang)面是由于加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)正朝(chao)着复合化(hua)方(fang)(fang)(fang)向(xiang)(xiang)发展,另一(yi)方(fang)(fang)(fang)面选(xuan)(xuan)型时要综合考(kao)虑(lv)生产效率、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺要求和(he)设备资金等因(yin)(yin)素,要以性价(jia)比来衡(heng)量选(xuan)(xuan)型方(fang)(fang)(fang)案的(de)(de)(de)合理性。

建(jian)议:采购用户需(xu)要根据(ju)加(jia)工对象、加(jia)工工艺、加(jia)工范围等特征来(lai)确定是否使用卧式(shi)加(jia)工中(zhong)心以及(ji)使用什(shen)么(me)样的卧式(shi)加(jia)工中(zhong)心。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工作(zuo)台尺(chi)寸

这是卧(wo)式加工中心(xin)的(de)主(zhu)(zhu)参(can)数(shu),主(zhu)(zhu)要取决(jue)于典型零件的(de)外(wai)廓尺(chi)寸、装(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)夹(jia)方式等(deng)。应(ying)选择比(bi)典型零件外(wai)廓尺(chi)寸稍大一些的(de)工作台,以便留出(chu)安(an)装(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)夹(jia)具所需的(de)空间,保证零件在其(qi)上面(mian)能够(gou)顺利(li)装(zhuang)(zhuang)(zhuang)夹(jia),此外(wai)还应(ying)考虑(lv)工作台的(de)承载能力、T形(xing)槽数(shu)量和尺(chi)寸等(deng),小尺(chi)寸的(de)比(bi)较通(tong)用(yong),比(bi)如(ru)站(zhan)内的(de)卧(wo)式加工中心(xin)MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等(deng)。

建议:目前市场(chang)上的卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心工(gong)作(zuo)台尺(chi)寸多为1000以(yi)下的,能够满(man)足(zu)大多数用户的需求。

(2)坐(zuo)标轴行程

最基本(ben)的(de)(de)坐(zuo)(zuo)标(biao)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)是(shi)X、Y、Z三轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou),其行程(cheng)和工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台(tai)尺寸(cun)(cun)有(you)相(xiang)应的(de)(de)比例关系,工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台(tai)面的(de)(de)大(da)小(xiao)基本(ben)上确定了(le)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)空间的(de)(de)大(da)小(xiao)。如个别零(ling)(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)尺寸(cun)(cun)大(da)于卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心行程(cheng)时(shi),则(ze)必须要(yao)求零(ling)(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)区域(yu)处于机床(chuang)的(de)(de)行程(cheng)范(fan)围之(zhi)内(nei),此外还(hai)要(yao)考虑(lv)零(ling)(ling)件(jian)是(shi)否与(yu)机床(chuang)交换刀(dao)具(ju)的(de)(de)空间干(gan)(gan)涉、与(yu)机床(chuang)防护罩等(deng)附件(jian)发生干(gan)(gan)涉等(deng)系列(lie)问题(ti)。而对需要(yao)多轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)联动(dong)(dong)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心 (如增加(jia)(jia)回(hui)转坐(zuo)(zuo)标(biao)A、B、C或附加(jia)(jia)坐(zuo)(zuo)标(biao)U、V、W),如四轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)、五轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)联动(dong)(dong)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心,这就需要(yao)特殊订(ding)货,同(tong)时(shi)必须对相(xiang)应配套的(de)(de)编(bian)程(cheng)软件(jian)、测量手段以及机床(chuang)价(jia)格等(deng)有(you)全面的(de)(de)考虑(lv)和安排。

建议:采购用户需要(yao)(yao)根据加(jia)工工件规格选择不同坐标轴(zhou)行程的卧式加(jia)工中心,多轴(zhou)联(lian)动(dong)需要(yao)(yao)特殊(shu)定制。

(3)主轴电动机功率(lv)与转(zhuan)矩

它反映了卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)切(qie)(qie)削效(xiao)率,也从一个侧面反映了卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)切(qie)(qie)削刚性和机床整体刚度。主(zhu)轴电(dian)动机功率在同(tong)(tong)类规格(ge)的(de)(de)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)上可以有各种不同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)配置(zhi),同(tong)(tong)类规格(ge)的(de)(de)主(zhu)轴转速不同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin),主(zhu)轴电(dian)动机功率可以相差(cha)很大。

建议:采购用(yong)户应根据自身典型零(ling)件(jian)毛坯余量大小、切削(xue)能(neng)力(li) (单位时间金属切削(xue)量)、要求(qiu)达到(dao)的(de)加工精度、实(shi)际能(neng)配(pei)置的(de)刀具等(deng)因素综(zong)合(he)选(xuan)择。

(4)主轴转速与进给速度(du)

需要(yao)高速(su)(su)切(qie)(qie)削或(huo)超低速(su)(su)切(qie)(qie)削时(shi),应关(guan)注主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)的(de)(de)转(zhuan)速(su)(su)范围。特别是高速(su)(su)切(qie)(qie)削时(shi),既要(yao)有(you)高的(de)(de)主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)(su),同时(shi)也(ye)要(yao)具(ju)(ju)备与主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)(su)相(xiang)匹配的(de)(de)进给(ji)速(su)(su)度(du)。目前(qian)卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心高速(su)(su)化(hua)趋势发(fa)展很快(kuai),主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)从每分钟几(ji)千转(zhuan)到几(ji)万转(zhuan),直(zhi)(zhi)线(xian)坐标快(kuai)速(su)(su)移动(dong)(dong)速(su)(su)度(du)从10—20/min上(shang)升到80m/min以(yi)上(shang),当(dang)然(ran)其(qi)功能部件如(ru)电主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)、直(zhi)(zhi)线(xian)电动(dong)(dong)机、直(zhi)(zhi)线(xian)滚动(dong)(dong)导轨(gui)、主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)承等及相(xiang)配套的(de)(de)光栅尺、刀具(ju)(ju)等附(fu)件价格也(ye)都相(xiang)应上(shang)升,甚(shen)至很昂(ang)贵(gui)。

建(jian)议(yi):采购(gou)用户必(bi)须(xu)根(gen)据自身的(de)技术能(neng)力和配套(tao)能(neng)力合理(li)作出卧(wo)式加工中心的(de)合理(li)选(xuan)型。

(5)刀库(ku)容(rong)量

可(ke)以(yi)根据被加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)零件的工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)分析结果(guo)来确定(ding)所需数量(liang),通(tong)常以(yi)典型零件在一次装夹中所需刀(dao)具(ju)(ju)数量(liang)来确定(ding)刀(dao)库(ku)的容(rong)量(liang),卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心(xin)以(yi)选用(yong)40把(ba)刀(dao)左右的刀(dao)库(ku)为宜。同时(shi)要关注(zhu)最(zui)大刀(dao)具(ju)(ju)直径与(yu)长度以(yi)及最(zui)大刀(dao)具(ju)(ju)重量(liang)等。用(yong)于FMC或FMS的卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心(xin),应选择大容(rong)量(liang)刀(dao)库(ku),甚(shen)至(zhi)配置可(ke)交换刀(dao)库(ku)。

建议:普通卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工中心选择40把刀左右的刀库(ku)即够用,用于FMC或FMS的卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工中心应选择大容量刀库(ku)。

3我需要选(xuan)用什么精(jing)度(du)的卧(wo)式加工中心?——精(jing)度(du)的选(xuan)定

加(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)等(deng)级主要根(gen)据(ju)典型零件关键部(bu)位的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)来确定(ding)(ding)(ding)。其精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)主要包括定(ding)(ding)(ding)位精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)、重复定(ding)(ding)(ding)位精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)和铣圆精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du),特别是重复定(ding)(ding)(ding)位精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du),它反映了坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)轴的(de)(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)(ding)性(xing),是衡量该轴是否稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)(ding)可靠工作(zuo)的(de)(de)(de)基本(ben)(ben)(ben)指(zhi)标(biao)(biao)(biao)。特别值(zhi)得注意(yi)的(de)(de)(de)是,选型订(ding)货时必须全面(mian)分析(xi),不(bu)(bu)能简单地看产品样本(ben)(ben)(ben)所(suo)列的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)数值(zhi),因(yin)为标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)、规定(ding)(ding)(ding)数值(zhi)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)、检测(ce)方法不(bu)(bu)同(tong),数值(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)含义就不(bu)(bu)同(tong)。刊物、样本(ben)(ben)(ben)、合格证(zheng)所(suo)列出的(de)(de)(de)单位长度(du)上允许的(de)(de)(de)正(zheng)负(fu)值(zhi)(一般为正(zheng)负(fu)0.05)常(chang)常(chang)是不(bu)(bu)明确的(de)(de)(de),订(ding)货时要特别注意(yi),一定(ding)(ding)(ding)要弄清是IOS(国(guo)际标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)化组(zu)织标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun))、VDI(德国(guo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun))、JIS(日本(ben)(ben)(ben)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun))、NMTBA(美国(guo)机床(chuang)制造(zao)商协会(hui)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun))还是NAS(美国(guo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun))及GB(中(zhong)国(guo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun))等(deng),进而(er)分析(xi)各种不(bu)(bu)同(tong)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)所(suo)规定(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)检测(ce)计算方法和检测(ce)环境条(tiao)件,才不(bu)(bu)会(hui)产生(sheng)误解。

铣(xian)圆精度是(shi)综合评价卧式加工中(zhong)心有(you)关(guan)数控轴的伺(si)服(fu)跟随(sui)运动(dong)特性(xing)和数控系(xi)统插补功能的主要(yao)(yao)指(zhi)标之一。不论典型零件是(shi)否有(you)此需(xu)要(yao)(yao),为了将来可能的需(xu)要(yao)(yao)及更好地控制精度,必须重视这一指(zhi)标。

要特(te)别注意区别加(jia)工(gong)(gong)精(jing)度与机床精(jing)度两个不同的(de)概(gai)念。将(jiang)生产厂家样本(ben)(ben)上或(huo)产品合(he)格(ge)证(zheng)上的(de)位置精(jing)度当(dang)作(zuo)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)精(jing)度是错误的(de)。样本(ben)(ben)或(huo)合(he)格(ge)证(zheng)上标明(ming)的(de)位置精(jing)度是加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)本(ben)(ben)身(shen)的(de)精(jing)度,而加(jia)工(gong)(gong)精(jing)度是包(bao)括卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)本(ben)(ben)身(shen)所(suo)允许误差(cha)在内的(de)整个工(gong)(gong)艺系(xi)统各(ge)种因(yin)素所(suo)产生的(de)误差(cha)总(zong)和。整个工(gong)(gong)艺系(xi)统误差(cha)产生的(de)原因(yin)是很(hen)复杂的(de),很(hen)难用线性关系(xi)定量表达。选型时(shi),可参考(kao)工(gong)(gong)序(xu)能力(li)系(xi)数Cp的(de)评定方法来作(zuo)为机床加(jia)工(gong)(gong)精(jing)度的(de)选型依据。一(yi)般而言,Cp应(ying)大于1.33。

站内高精密的几款卧式(shi)(shi)加工中(zhong)心:MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动(dong)柱式(shi)(shi)卧式(shi)(shi)加工中(zhong)心性能都(dou)不错。

建议:采(cai)购用户在挑选不同(tong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)的卧式加工(gong)中心时,需要考(kao)虑:不同(tong)标准对应的单位长度(du)含义;重(zhong)视铣圆精(jing)(jing)度(du)指标;区别(bie)加工(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)和机(ji)床精(jing)(jing)度(du)。

4我(wo)应该选择哪种数控系统?——数控系统的(de)选定(ding)

数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)分为基(ji)(ji)本(ben)(ben)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)与(yu)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng),可以从操作方(fang)(fang)式(shi)、用(yong)户功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)、控(kong)制方(fang)(fang)式(shi)、驱动形(xing)(xing)式(shi)、反馈形(xing)(xing)式(shi)、接口形(xing)(xing)式(shi)、检测与(yu)测量、报警与(yu)提示、故(gu)障诊断等(deng)方(fang)(fang)面(mian)综(zong)合衡量。基(ji)(ji)本(ben)(ben)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)是必须提供(gong)的,而(er)只(zhi)有当用(yong)户选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)了选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)后,厂(chang)家才会(hui)另(ling)行提供(gong)并另(ling)行加(jia)价(jia),且定(ding)价(jia)一般较高(gao)(gao)。总(zong)体(ti)而(er)言,数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)的功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)一定(ding)要(yao)根(gen)据加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)的性能(neng)(neng)(neng)需要(yao)来(lai)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze),订(ding)购时(shi)既(ji)要(yao)把需要(yao)的功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)订(ding)全,不(bu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)遗漏,同时(shi)避免使(shi)用(yong)率不(bu)高(gao)(gao)而(er)造成浪费(fei),还(hai)需注意各功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)之间(jian)的关联性。另(ling)一方(fang)(fang)面(mian),在可供(gong)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)的数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)中,如SIEMENS系(xi)(xi)统(tong)、FANUC系(xi)(xi)统(tong)、国产华中数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)等(deng),性能(neng)(neng)(neng)高(gao)(gao)低差别(bie)很大,价(jia)格(ge)亦(yi)相差很大,进口系(xi)(xi)统(tong)或(huo)国产系(xi)(xi)统(tong)亦(yi)决(jue)定(ding)其价(jia)格(ge)的高(gao)(gao)低。总(zong)体(ti)上来(lai)看,法兰(lan)克(ke)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)性价(jia)比(bi)比(bi)较高(gao)(gao),国内(nei)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)使(shi)用(yong)比(bi)例比(bi)较高(gao)(gao)。站内(nei)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)使(shi)用(yong)法兰(lan)克(ke)数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)的也比(bi)较多,比(bi)如MH-800B 、 LH-500B都是比(bi)较好的选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)。多台卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)选(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)时(shi),应(ying)尽可能(neng)(neng)(neng)选(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)同一厂(chang)家的数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong),这样操作、编(bian)程、维修都比(bi)较方(fang)(fang)便。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我(wo)需要(yao)选择几台卧(wo)式(shi)加工中心(xin)能(neng)达到的(de)我(wo)的(de)产量要(yao)求?——生产能(neng)力(li)的(de)估算

选型(xing)时,必(bi)须要考(kao)虑卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心能(neng)(neng)达到(dao)的(de)生(sheng)产能(neng)(neng)力,即要求选定(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心在(zai)(zai)(zai)一(yi)年(nian)之内能(neng)(neng)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几种典(dian)型(xing)零件(jian)(jian)、加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出(chu)多(duo)少数(shu)量的(de)零件(jian)(jian)。要得到(dao)这些数(shu)据(ju)(ju)必(bi)须对每(mei)一(yi)种确(que)定(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)典(dian)型(xing)零件(jian)(jian)进行(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时和生(sheng)产节(jie)拍的(de)估(gu)(gu)算。一(yi)般步(bu)骤为:首先(xian),根(gen)据(ju)(ju)已(yi)选定(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)典(dian)型(xing)零件(jian)(jian)进行(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)分析(xi),初(chu)步(bu)确(que)定(ding)(ding)(ding)一(yi)条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路(lu)线,在(zai)(zai)(zai)这条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路(lu)线中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)选出(chu)准(zhun)备在(zai)(zai)(zai)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心上加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu);第二,根(gen)据(ju)(ju)现用的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)参数(shu),估(gu)(gu)算出(chu)每(mei)道在(zai)(zai)(zai)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心上加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)的(de)单个工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)时间(jian);第三,由每(mei)个单工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)时间(jian)计(ji)算出(chu)选定(ding)(ding)(ding)零件(jian)(jian)在(zai)(zai)(zai)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心上加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)的(de)总时间(jian),进而(er)计(ji)算出(chu)年(nian)产量即生(sheng)产能(neng)(neng)力。如果(guo)估(gu)(gu)算结果(guo)达不(bu)到(dao)目标值(zhi),但相(xiang)差不(bu)大,则可以通过修改工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)参数(shu)的(de)方(fang)法加(jia)以调整(zheng);如果(guo)相(xiang)差很大,则应考(kao)虑增加(jia)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心台数(shu)的(de)配置。

建议:采购用户需要(yao)根据工(gong)件加(jia)工(gong)工(gong)时(shi)和(he)生产节拍的估算(suan),决定卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心配备台数。

6卧式加工中心有(you)好多选(xuan)配的附件我应该如何选(xuan)配?——其他功能部(bu)件及附件的选(xuan)定

(1)坐标(biao)轴数(shu)(shu)和(he)联动轴数(shu)(shu)

坐标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)数和(he)联动轴(zhou)数均应满足典型零(ling)件(jian)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)要求(qiu)。一般(ban)情(qing)况下,同(tong)厂家、同(tong)规(gui)格(ge)、同(tong)等精(jing)度的(de)(de)卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心,增加(jia)一个(ge)标(biao)(biao)准坐标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou),价(jia)格(ge)约增加(jia)30%—50%。尽(jin)管增加(jia)坐标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)数可以强化加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心的(de)(de)功能,是(shi)机床上档次(ci)的(de)(de)标(biao)(biao)志(zhi)之一,但最终还是(shi)要在工(gong)(gong)艺要求(qiu)和(he)资金条件(jian)下平衡(heng)决(jue)定。

(2)工作台

卧式加工(gong)(gong)中心可配置用(yong)于分(fen)度(du)的(de)回(hui)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台和(he)数控回(hui)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台,后者能够实现任意分(fen)度(du),作(zuo)为B轴与(yu)其他轴联动控制。回(hui)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台配置与(yu)否以及如何配置必(bi)须以实际需要(yao)来确定,以经济、实用(yong)为目(mu)的(de)。

(3)自动(dong)换刀装置(zhi) (ATC)

ATC的选择主要考虑换刀时间与(yu)可靠(kao)性(xing)。过(guo)分强(qiang)调换刀时间会使(shi)加(jia)工中心的价格大幅度提(ti)高(gao)并使(shi)故(gu)(gu)障率上(shang)升。据统计(ji),加(jia)工中心的故(gu)(gu)障中约有50%与(yu)ATC有关,因(yin)此,在(zai)满足使(shi)用要求(qiu)的前提(ti)下,尽(jin)量(liang)选用可靠(kao)性(xing)高(gao)的ATC,以降低故(gu)(gu)障率和整机成本(ben)

(4)必(bi)要(yao)的附件、配套件

选(xuan)型时(shi),还应(ying)注意选(xuan)用一些配套(tao)件(jian)及附(fu)件(jian),尽量(liang)避(bi)免因缺少一个(ge)几万(wan)元就能购买的(de)(de)(de)附(fu)件(jian)而(er)影响卧式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)正常运行。慎重选(xuan)择刀(dao)(dao)(dao)柄和刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具也是(shi)(shi)保证卧式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)正常运行的(de)(de)(de)关键,最佳的(de)(de)(de)选(xuan)择办法应(ying)是(shi)(shi)根据典型零件(jian)所需的(de)(de)(de)品(pin)种和数量(liang)来(lai)确(que)定,并(bing)在使用中(zhong)(zhong)陆续(xu)添置(zhi)。在卧式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)构成中(zhong)(zhong),排屑(xie)装(zhuang)置(zhi)、防护装(zhuang)置(zhi)和对刀(dao)(dao)(dao)装(zhuang)置(zhi) (如刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具预调仪)等(deng)均是(shi)(shi)必(bi)需的(de)(de)(de),对一些尽管不是(shi)(shi)必(bi)需的(de)(de)(de)配套(tao)件(jian),但如果价格不高,对使用带(dai)来(lai)很多方(fang)便(bian),也应(ying)尽量(liang)选(xuan)用,如附(fu)件(jian)铣(xian)头(tou)、储刀(dao)(dao)(dao)料架、运刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具车、装(zhuang)卸(xie)器等(deng)。

建议:配件(jian)越高,能实(shi)现的功能越多,但价格也越贵,采购用户(hu)需(xu)要根(gen)据加工需(xu)求酌情选配。

7卧式加工中心选型(xing)时(shi)还有什么其他需(xu)要(yao)注意的(de)?——需(xu)要(yao)注意的(de)一些问题

(1)结构(gou)设(she)计

加工中心(xin)对其床身(shen)、立柱、工作(zuo)台(tai)、主轴以及刀库等(deng)功能部件的(de)(de)结构设计有着很高的(de)(de)要(yao)求,以达(da)到其高强度、高刚度、高抗振(zhen)性和稳定性的(de)(de)目的(de)(de)。选型(xing)时,应特别注意把其结构作(zuo)为一项重要(yao)的(de)(de)具体内容来进行(xing)要(yao)求与(yu)考虑。

(2)功能与加(jia)工(gong)的适应性

虽然(ran)加(jia)工中心(xin)可以(yi)(yi)进行钻(zuan)、扩、铣、镗、铰、攻螺纹乃至车(che)削 (如(ru)车(che)铣复合加(jia)工中心(xin))等(deng)多种加(jia)工,但是在具体选择时,还应根据具体需要来考虑机床的功能与加(jia)工是否相适应等(deng)问题。要注意以(yi)(yi)下(xia)几点:

A、复杂曲(qu)线加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)时(shi),要考虑CNC是(shi)否有所需要的(de)曲(qu)线插补功能(neng),或选(xuan)择什么方(fang)式逼近(jin)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)曲(qu)线并保(bao)证所要求的(de)表面粗糙度。三维加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)时(shi),要考虑选(xuan)择适合的(de)刀(dao)具结构,还要考虑程(cheng)序编制能(neng)力(li),如(ru)有必(bi)要则(ze)必(bi)须(xu)配备(bei)自动编程(cheng)装置(zhi)或后置(zhi)处理(li)编程(cheng)装置(zhi)。

B、需要(yao)进行螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)(qie)削(xue) (非(fei)攻螺(luo)纹(wen)方式)时(shi),不仅(jin)要(yao)看是(shi)否(fou)(fou)有(you)螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)(qie)削(xue)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)、螺(luo)旋(xuan)线插(cha)补功(gong)(gong)能(neng)和(he)主(zhu)轴转(zhuan)动与进给(ji)同步功(gong)(gong)能(neng),还要(yao)考(kao)虑机床是(shi)否(fou)(fou)有(you)径向(xiang)进给(ji)装置、是(shi)否(fou)(fou)有(you)主(zhu)轴在(zai)旋(xuan)转(zhuan)方向(xiang)上任意角度位置准确定(ding)位功(gong)(gong)能(neng)。否(fou)(fou)则,仅(jin)在(zai)数控系(xi)统中用了螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)(qie)削(xue)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)仍然无(wu)法进行螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)(qie)削(xue)C、采用金(jin)刚铰、浮动镗(tang)和(he)挤(ji)压(ya)加工等(deng)(deng)特种加工时(shi),既要(yao)考(kao)虑适宜的自动换刀的条件(jian)(jian),又要(yao)考(kao)虑选择合适的刀具结构(gou)和(he)切(qie)(qie)削(xue)用量,应尽可能(neng)在(zai)购买主(zhu)机时(shi)一并购置部分易损(sun)部件(jian)(jian)及其他附(fu)件(jian)(jian)等(deng)(deng)。

D、如果(guo)有(you)应用DNC、FMS、CIMS等(deng)的规划,或(huo)要(yao)进行网络(luo)(luo)制造,则要(yao)注意通信功能,应选择具有(you)RS—232、RS—485甚至MAP网络(luo)(luo)通信、CAN总(zong)线等(deng)接(jie)口的系(xi)统。

(3)运转的可(ke)靠性

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建(jian)议:采购(gou)用户在(zai)选型(xing)时,需要对卧式加(jia)(jia)工中心(xin)整体的结构设计、可靠性以(yi)及价加(jia)(jia)工适应性有客观的认识。


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