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桁架机械手

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:zgdlgc.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)由(you)(you)主体、驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)系(xi)统和(he)(he)控制系(xi)统三(san)个基(ji)本部分组成。按机(ji)(ji)器人结(jie)构分类为(wei)直角坐标(biao)型,机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)沿二维直角坐标(biao)系(xi)移(yi)(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)。主体部分通(tong)常采用龙(long)门(men)式(shi)结(jie)构,由(you)(you)y向横梁与导(dao)轨、z向滑枕、十字滑座(zuo)、立柱(zhu)、过渡连接板和(he)(he)基(ji)座(zuo)等部分组成,z向的直线(xian)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)皆为(wei)交(jiao)流(liu)伺(si)服电动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)通(tong)过蜗(wo)轮(lun)(lun)减速(su)器驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)齿轮(lun)(lun)与y向横梁、z向滑枕上(shang)(shang)固定的齿条作滚(gun)(gun)动(dong)(dong)(dong),驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)移(yi)(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)部件(jian)沿导(dao)轨快速(su)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)。移(yi)(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)部件(jian)为(wei)质量较轻的十字滑座(zuo)和(he)(he)z向滑枕,滑枕采用由(you)(you)铝合金拉(la)制的型材。横梁采用方钢型材,在横梁上(shang)(shang)安装有导(dao)轨和(he)(he)齿条,通(tong)过滚(gun)(gun)轮(lun)(lun)与导(dao)轨接触,整个机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)都悬挂在其上(shang)(shang)。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由于桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)(su)度(du)(du)快(kuai),加(jia)(jia)速(su)(su)度(du)(du)大,加(jia)(jia)减速(su)(su)时(shi)间短。当输(shu)送(song)(song)较重的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)时(shi),惯量大,因(yin)此,伺(si)(si)服驱(qu)(qu)动(dong)(dong)电机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)要有足(zu)够的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)驱(qu)(qu)动(dong)(dong)和(he)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)能力(li),支撑元(yuan)(yuan)件(jian)也(ye)要有足(zu)够的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)刚(gang)度(du)(du)及(ji)强度(du)(du)。只有这样,才(cai)能使伺(si)(si)服电动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)满足(zu)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)响应(ying)、高(gao)刚(gang)度(du)(du)及(ji)高(gao)精(jing)度(du)(du)要求。在(zai)选择合适伺(si)(si)服电动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)情(qing)况下,根(gen)据(ju)物料运动(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距(ju)离和(he)运行(xing)(xing)节拍,计算出(chu)伺(si)(si)服系(xi)统的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)位移和(he)轨迹(ji),对驱(qu)(qu)动(dong)(dong)器(qi)PID参(can)数进(jin)行(xing)(xing)动(dong)(dong)态调(diao)整。桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手根(gen)据(ju)接收到的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)位移、速(su)(su)度(du)(du)指令(ling),经变化、放大并调(diao)整处(chu)理后,传递(di)给(ji)运动(dong)(dong)单元(yuan)(yuan),通(tong)过光(guang)纤(xian)传感器(qi)对运行(xing)(xing)状态进(jin)行(xing)(xing)实时(shi)检测(ce),在(zai)高(gao)速(su)(su)搬运过程(cheng)中,运动(dong)(dong)部件(jian)在(zai)极短的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)时(shi)间内(nei)到达给(ji)定的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)(su)度(du)(du),并能在(zai)高(gao)速(su)(su)行(xing)(xing)程(cheng)中瞬间准(zhun)停,通(tong)过高(gao)分辩率绝(jue)对式(shi)编码器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)插补(bu)运算,控(kong)制(zhi)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)误差和(he)测(ce)量误差对运动(dong)(dong)精(jing)度(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影响。由于被(bei)(bei)输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)不同,质量也(ye)不同,因(yin)此,桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手有多种(zhong)规格和(he)系(xi)列。在(zai)选择时(shi),根(gen)据(ju)被(bei)(bei)输(shu)送(song)(song)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)质量,加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)节拍来(lai)(lai)选取。但机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)手臂,夹持方(fang)(fang)式(shi),则(ze)根(gen)据(ju)被(bei)(bei)输(shu)送(song)(song)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)形状、结(jie)构及(ji)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床夹具定夹方(fang)(fang)式(shi)来(lai)(lai)设计(见图2)。

机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)能(neng)够借助(zhu)可(ke)编(bian)程序来处理和(he)(he)执行(xing)任务。机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)主要由(you)手(shou)(shou)图 1 臂、回转装(zhuang)置、运动(dong)部件(jian)及驱(qu)动(dong)部件(jian)组成。通过(guo)对(dui)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)外(wai)形或(huo)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)上定(ding)(ding)(ding)位支撑点定(ding)(ding)(ding)位夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)。例如,在汽车发动(dong)机(ji)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)柔性(xing)自动(dong)线(xian)物流(liu)输送(song)中,桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)块会(hui)根据缸体(ti)、缸盖、曲轴等工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)外(wai)形特点,选(xuan)取不(bu)同的(de)(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位和(he)(he)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)方式(shi)。柔性(xing)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)上采(cai)用气缸和(he)(he)电(dian)机(ji)进(jin)行(xing)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位和(he)(he)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)块的(de)(de)(de)切换(huan)(huan)驱(qu)动(dong),一套(tao)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)可(ke)完成不(bu)同品种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)搬运工(gong)(gong)(gong)作。夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位模(mo)块可(ke)根据产(chan)品质量和(he)(he)外(wai)形的(de)(de)(de)大小采(cai)用系列(lie)化(hua)设计,机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)上的(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位模(mo)块安装(zhuang)方式(shi)相(xiang)(xiang)同,针对(dui)不(bu)同系列(lie)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian),只需切换(huan)(huan)相(xiang)(xiang)应的(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位模(mo)块即可(ke),满足快(kuai)速切换(huan)(huan)的(de)(de)(de)需要。这样,当加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)不(bu)同品种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian),只须变(bian)换(huan)(huan)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)块就可(ke)实现,提高了桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)化(hua)。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动(dong)线桁架机械手输送装(zhuang)置的发展及现状(zhuang)

自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,经历了刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)和(he)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)两个时代。就(jiu)目(mu)前(qian)而(er)言, 在国内二(er)者(zhe)均(jun)有(you)之。刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)分(fen)为棘轮棘爪、摆杆、抬起(qi)步伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道(dao)等(deng)形式。随着(zhe)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,由其(qi)(qi)组(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)逐(zhu)步替代组(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),它以适应小(xiao)批量多(duo)品(pin)种的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优(you)点(dian),得到市(shi)场的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛认(ren)可(ke),并称其(qi)(qi)为柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)。这种以加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),就(jiu)其(qi)(qi)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)或输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)带依然为刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing), 这类柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)可(ke)谓是准柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)。当(dang)今的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)又(you)有(you)了飞跃,输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)形式以刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou))并存,或纯柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song),即输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)系统(tong)全(quan)部(bu)由桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)组(zu)成(cheng),这是真(zhen)正(zheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),即主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)系统(tong)也柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)。如(ru)主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是高速加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)配以桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song),又(you)称之为敏捷柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),是敏捷制(zhi)(zhi)造系统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要组(zu)成(cheng)部(bu)分(fen)。自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)采(cai)(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)步距可(ke)根据(ju)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配置(zhi)(zhi)随意改(gai)变,自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)与(yu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)之间的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang)位置(zhi)(zhi)不(bu)再象刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)那样,按照输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)步距或步距倍数的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)要求进(jin)(jin)行(xing)严格的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang),且输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)速度也可(ke)根据(ju)生产节拍及(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距离(li)而(er)改(gai)变。而(er)真(zhen)正(zheng)体(ti)现(xian)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要一(yi)面是,当(dang)被加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)产品(pin)改(gai)变后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)部(bu)分(fen)不(bu)会不(bu)适应而(er)全(quan)部(bu)更换,只要改(gai)变输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)程(cheng)序和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)局部(bu)结构即可(ke)。采(cai)(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)更先进(jin)(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)面是,机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)整体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)化、智能化的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)协调(diao)统(tong)一(yi)。因此,桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)才(cai)在当(dang)今柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上(shang)越来越多(duo)地被采(cai)(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong),使整个生产过程(cheng)通(tong)过信(xin)息流系统(tong)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)。在加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)和(he)运输(shu)(shu)(shu)过程(cheng)中,所需各(ge)种信(xin)息收集、处理、反馈,并通(tong)过电子计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或其(qi)(qi)他控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(液压、气(qi)压装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)等(deng)),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)或运输(shu)(shu)(shu)设备实行(xing)分(fen)级(ji)控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)。信(xin)息流系统(tong)分(fen)为由中央(yang)管理计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单(dan)元控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各(ge)数控(kong)(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)以及(ji)信(xin)息传送(song)(song)(song)网络组(zu)成(cheng)。目(mu)前(qian),汽(qi)车制(zhi)(zhi)造业中加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体(ti)、缸盖及(ji)曲轴等(deng)大批量关键零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),大都(dou)采(cai)(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)了桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(见图3)。

2. 国内外的差距

当下,我(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)发展很(hen)(hen)快(kuai),技术水(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)有(you)了(le)(le)很(hen)(hen)大(da)的(de)(de)提高(gao),与国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)的(de)(de)差(cha)距(ju)变得(de)越来(lai)越小,甚至有(you)些(xie)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)与国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)相比已(yi)经没有(you)什么差(cha)距(ju)。特别是(shi)(shi)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家重(zhong)大(da)科技专项的(de)(de)开展,为我(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)上档次(ci)上水(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)提高(gao)了(le)(le)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)速度(du),成(cheng)(cheng)绩(ji)显而易见。加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)这(zhei)几年发展的(de)(de)特别快(kuai),但柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)技术水(shui)(shui)平(ping)(ping)和(he)(he)档次(ci),较国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)的(de)(de)差(cha)距(ju)还很(hen)(hen)明显,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)较为普遍,而国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)却为数不多,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)庞(pang)大(da)的(de)(de)汽车生(sheng)产(chan)市场(chang)所采(cai)用(yong)的(de)(de)带桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),大(da)多从国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)进(jin)口。如无锡柴油发动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)缸(gang)体缸(gang)盖柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)由(you)(you)德国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公司总承包,由(you)(you)BZ800加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心、GROB专机(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗(xi)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)、试漏机(ji)(ji)(ji)、压(ya)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)在线(xian)(xian)(xian)检具、辅机(ji)(ji)(ji)及(ji)珩磨(mo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)。输(shu)送(song)采(cai)用(yong)空(kong)中(zhong)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)和(he)(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)滚道自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)输(shu)送(song)。仅以汽车制造业而言(yan),国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)生(sheng)产(chan)的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)屈指可数。大(da)连机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)(tuan)和(he)(he)沈阳(yang)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)(tuan)等(deng)生(sheng)产(chan)出了(le)(le)该方面(mian)的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),并在生(sheng)产(chan)实际(ji)中(zhong)得(de)到了(le)(le)应用(yong)。图4是(shi)(shi)大(da)连机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)(tuan)生(sheng)产(chan)的(de)(de)DKX017缸(gang)体加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)柔(rou)(rou)性自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)两种缸(gang)体,分别为四(si)缸(gang)和(he)(he)六缸(gang),其(qi)输(shu)送(song)采(cai)用(yong)空(kong)中(zhong)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)和(he)(he)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)两端为机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)滚道等(deng)形式。桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)两个(ge)(ge),一个(ge)(ge)上料(liao),一个(ge)(ge)下料(liao)。它的(de)(de)成(cheng)(cheng)功,标志着我(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)由(you)(you)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)开始向国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)水(shui)(shui)准迈进(jin)。

上述提及的(de)只是(shi)数量上的(de)比(bi)较,其实真正(zheng)的(de)原因还是(shi)国产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)技(ji)术水平与(yu)国外(wai)(wai)有着一(yi)定的(de)差距(ju)(ju)。柔(rou)性加(jia)工自(zi)动线采用的(de)桁(heng)架(jia)机械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou),也是(shi)从(cong)国外(wai)(wai)进口的(de)桁(heng)架(jia)机械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)。那时,国内还没有专门生产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)厂家。如今,国内巨一(yi)等一(yi)些桁(heng)架(jia)机械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)生产(chan)(chan)厂家的(de)涌出(chu),为国产(chan)(chan)柔(rou)性加(jia)工自(zi)动线带来了(le)希望,进而缩(suo)小了(le)与(yu)国外(wai)(wai)在(zai)生产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)方(fang)面(mian)的(de)差距(ju)(ju),国产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)在(zai)柔(rou)性加(jia)工自(zi)动线的(de)应用也越来越多,从(cong)而打破(po)国产(chan)(chan)市场被外(wai)(wai)国人(ren)的(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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